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Association between polypharmacy and falls in older adults: a longitudinal study from England

Original post: http://bmjopen.bmj.com/cgi/content/short/7/10/e016358?rss=1

Objectives

Assess the longitudinal association between polypharmacy and falls and examine the differences in this association by different thresholds for polypharmacy definitions in a nationally representative sample of adults aged over 60 years from England.

Design

Longitudinal cohort study.

Setting

The English Longitudinal Study of Ageing waves 6 and 7.

Participants

5213 adults aged 60 or older.

Main outcome measures

Rates, incidence rate ratio (IRR) and 95% CI for falls in people with and without polypharmacy.

Results

A total of 5213 participants contributed 10 502 person-years of follow-up, with a median follow-up of 2.02 years (IQR 1.9–2.1 years). Of the 1611 participants with polypharmacy, 569 reported at least one fall within the past 2 years (rate: 175 per 1000 person-years, 95% CI 161 to 190), and of the 3602 participants without polypharmacy 875 reported at least one fall (rate: 121 per 1000 person-years, 95% CI 113 to 129). The rate of falls was 21% higher in people with polypharmacy compared with people without polypharmacy (adjusted IRR 1.21, 95% CI 1.11 to 1.31). Using ≥4 drugs threshold the rate of falls was 18% hig

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Panel discusses the normalization of white nationalist hate

Original post: https://news.harvard.edu/gazette/story/2017/10/panel-discusses-the-normalization-of-white-nationalist-hate/

The evening began with two video clips from the online magazine Vice that are familiar, but still unsettling. One was of white nationalists chanting an anti-Semitic slogan at a rally in Charlottesville, Va. The other was an interview with a rally organizer, who made hateful statements about the late Trayvon Martin and President Trump’s Jewish son-in-law.

The interviewer in those clips, former New Republic senior editor Elle Reeve, was at the Kennedy School (HKS) on Wednesday to moderate the Institute of Politics panel “‘I’m Not a Racist, But’… Examining the White Nationalist Efforts to Normalize Hate.” The two panelists, R. Derek Black, a former white nationalist activist and current graduate student in history, and Khalil Muhammad, professor of history, race, and public policy at HKS, presented fresh perspectives on how the movement gained prominence, and whether the growth of racial hate can be reversed.

Black pointed out early in the talk that “white nationalist” is a term that the movement itself prefers to “white supremacist,” though the philosophies aren’t far apart. “Their explicit goal is that they want the country to be

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Is a Dangerous Bird Flu on the Horizon?

Original post: https://www.webmd.com/cold-and-flu/news/20171019/is-a-dangerous-bird-flu-on-the-horizon?src=RSS_PUBLIC

H7N9 is still confined to China, but new research suggests potential for wider transmission

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Mechanistic insights into electrochemical reduction of CO2 over Ag using density functional theory and transport models [Applied Physical Sciences]

Original post: http://www.pnas.org/content/114/42/E8812.short?rss=1

Electrochemical reduction of CO2 using renewable sources of electrical energy holds promise for converting CO2 to fuels and chemicals. Since this process is complex and involves a large number of species and physical phenomena, a comprehensive understanding of the factors controlling product distribution is required. While the most plausible reaction…

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Association between malignancies and Marfan syndrome: a population-based, nested case-control study in Taiwan

Original post: http://bmjopen.bmj.com/cgi/content/short/7/10/e017243?rss=1

Objective

Marfan syndrome (MFS) involves a deficiency of the structural extracellular matrix component fibrillin-1 and overactivation of the transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) signalling pathway. The TGF-β signalling pathway also actively participates in malignant transformation. Although anecdotal case reports have suggested associations between MFS/MFS-like conditions and several haematological and solid malignancies, such associations have not been thoroughly evaluated in large-scale studies. We sought to use a nationwide healthcare insurance claim database to evaluate whether patients with MFS are at increased risk of malignancy.

Patients and methods

We conducted a nested case–control analysis using a database extracted from Taiwan’s National Health Insurance Research Database. All medical conditions for each case and control were categorised using the International Classification of Diseases, 9th Revision classifications. ORs and 95% CIs for associations between MFS and malignancies were estimated using conditional logistic regression and adjusted for comorbidities.

Results

Our analyses included 1 153 137 cancer cases and 1 153 1

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Expanded subgenomic mRNA transcriptome and coding capacity of a nidovirus [Microbiology]

Original post: http://www.pnas.org/content/114/42/E8895.short?rss=1

Members of the order Nidovirales express their structural protein ORFs from a nested set of 3′ subgenomic mRNAs (sg mRNAs), and for most of these ORFs, a single genomic transcription regulatory sequence (TRS) was identified. Nine TRSs were previously reported for the arterivirus Simian hemorrhagic fever virus (SHFV). In the…

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Mediator subunit MED25 links the jasmonate receptor to transcriptionally active chromatin [Plant Biology]

Original post: http://www.pnas.org/content/114/42/E8930.short?rss=1

Jasmonoyl-isoleucine (JA-Ile), the active form of the plant hormone jasmonate (JA), is sensed by the F-box protein CORONATINE INSENSITIVE 1 (COI1), a component of a functional Skp–Cullin–F-box E3 ubiquitin ligase complex. Sensing of JA-Ile by COI1 rapidly triggers genome-wide transcriptional changes that are largely regulated by the basic helix–loop–helix transcription…

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Correction for Cekanaviciute et al., Gut bacteria from multiple sclerosis patients modulate human T cells and exacerbate symptoms in mouse models [Correction]

Original post: http://www.pnas.org/content/114/42/E8943.short?rss=1

IMMUNOLOGY AND INFLAMMATION Correction for “Gut bacteria from multiple sclerosis patients modulate human T cells and exacerbate symptoms in mouse models,” by Egle Cekanaviciute, Bryan B. Yoo, Tessel F. Runia, Justine W. Debelius, Sneha Singh, Charlotte A. Nelson, Rachel Kanner, Yadira Bencosme, Yun Kyung Lee, Stephen L. Hauser, Elizabeth Crabtree-Hartman,…

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New collaboration brings together sciences and humanities

Original post: https://news.harvard.edu/gazette/story/2017/10/new-collaboration-brings-together-sciences-and-humanities/

A new collaboration between Harvard’s Initiative for the Science of the Human Past and the Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History is seeking to direct research momentum to the Mediterranean, where recent probes have identified the source of plague outbreaks and where genes drawn from ancient bones are illuminating how people came and went, challenging ideas drawn from texts and other traditional historical sources.

The effort, represented in the new Max Planck-Harvard Research Center for the Archaeoscience of the Ancient Mediterranean, was inaugurated this month, with an Oct. 10 signing ceremony and a series of lectures presenting ongoing research.

Michael McCormick, the Francis Goelet Professor of Medieval History, chair of the Initiative for the Science of the Human Past, and chair of the new center’s steering committee, said that the work has opened important lines of communication between experts in the sciences and the humanities.

Professor of Genetics David Reich explains the technology and techniques behind his

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Effectiveness and meaningful use of paediatric surgical safety checklists and their implementation strategies: a systematic review with narrative synthesis

Original post: http://bmjopen.bmj.com/cgi/content/short/7/10/e016298?rss=1

Objective

To examine the effectiveness and meaningful use of paediatric surgical safety checklists (SSCs) and their implementation strategies through a systematic review with narrative synthesis.

Summary background data

Since the launch of the WHO SSC, checklists have been integrated into surgical systems worldwide. Information is sparse on how SSCs have been integrated into the paediatric surgical environment.

Methods

A broad search strategy was created using Pubmed, Embase, CINAHL, Cochrane Central, Web of Science, Science Citation Index and Conference Proceedings Citation Index. Abstracts and full texts were screened independently, in duplicate for inclusion. Extracted study characteristic and outcomes generated themes explored through subgroup analyses and idea webbing.

Results

1826 of 1921 studies were excluded after title and abstract review (kappa 0.77) and 47 after full-text review (kappa 0.86). 20 studies were of sufficient quality for narrative synthesis. Clinical outcomes were not affected by SSC introduction in studies without implementation strategies. A comprehensive SSC implementation strategy in developing countries demonstrated improved o

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