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Visualizing nuclear RNAi activity in single living human cells [Cell Biology]

Original post: http://www.pnas.org/content/114/42/E8837.short?rss=1

Nuclear RNA interference (RNAi) is mediated by the canonical RNAi machinery and can lead to transcriptional silencing, transcriptional activation, or modulation of alternative splicing patterns. These effects transpire through changes in histone and DNA modifications via RNAi-mediated recruitment of chromatin-modifying enzymes. To prove that nuclear RNAi occurs and modulates transcription…

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FOXO1 opposition of CD8+ T cell effector programming confers early memory properties and phenotypic diversity [Immunology and Inflammation]

Original post: http://www.pnas.org/content/114/42/E8865.short?rss=1

The factors and steps controlling postinfection CD8+ T cell terminal effector versus memory differentiation are incompletely understood. Whereas we found that naive TCF7 (alias “Tcf-1”) expression is FOXO1 independent, early postinfection we report bimodal, FOXO1-dependent expression of the memory-essential transcription factor TCF7 in pathogen-specific CD8+ T cells. We determined the…

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Sociodemographic variations in the amount, duration and cost of potentially preventable hospitalisation for chronic conditions among Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal Australians: a period prevalence study of linked public hospital data

Original post: http://bmjopen.bmj.com/cgi/content/short/7/10/e017331?rss=1

Objectives

To determine disparities in rates, length of stay (LOS) and hospital costs of potentially preventable hospitalisations (PPH) for selected chronic conditions among Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal South Australians (SA), then examine associations with area-level socioeconomic disadvantage and remoteness.

Setting

Period prevalence study using linked, administrative public hospital records.

Participants

Participants included all SA residents in 2005–2006 to 2010–2011. Analysis focused on those individuals experiencing chronic PPH as defined by the Australian Institute of Health and Welfare.

Primary outcome measures

Number and rates (unadjusted, then adjusted for sex and age) of chronic PPH, total LOS and direct hospital costs by Aboriginality.

Results

Aboriginal SAs experienced higher risk of index chronic PPH compared with non-Aboriginals (11.5 and 6.2 per 1000 persons per year, respectively) and at younger ages (median age 48 vs 70 years). Once hospitalised, Aboriginal people experienced more chronic PPH events, longer total LOS with higher costs than non-Aboriginal people (2.6 vs 1.9 PPH per person; 11.7 vs 9.0 days LOS; at $A1

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Health-related quality of life variations by sociodemographic factors and chronic conditions in three metropolitan cities of South Asia: the CARRS study

Original post: http://bmjopen.bmj.com/cgi/content/short/7/10/e018424?rss=1

Objectives

Health-related quality of life (HRQOL) is a key indicator of health. However, HRQOL data from representative populations in South Asia are lacking. This study aims to describe HRQOL overall, by age, gender and socioeconomic status, and examine the associations between selected chronic conditions and HRQOL in adults from three urban cities in South Asia.

Methods

We used data from 16 287 adults aged ≥20 years from the baseline survey of the Centre for Cardiometabolic Risk Reduction in South Asia cohort (2010–2011). HRQOL was measured using the European Quality of Life Five Dimension—Visual Analogue Scale (EQ5D-VAS), which measures health status on a scale of 0 (worst health status) to 100 (best possible health status).

Results

16 284 participants completed the EQ5D-VAS. Mean age was 42.4 (±13.3) years and 52.4% were women. 14% of the respondents reported problems in mobility and pain/discomfort domains. Mean VAS score was 74 (95% CI 73.7 to 74.2). Significantly lower health status was found in elderly (64.1), women (71.6), unemployed (68.4), less educated (71.2) and low-income group (73.4). Individuals with chronic conditions report

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How Many Mutant Genes Drive Cancer?

Original post: https://www.webmd.com/cancer/news/20171020/how-many-mutant-genes-drive-cancer?src=RSS_PUBLIC

Study finds there’s no precise number of DNA changes needed to spur a tumor

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Effects of school-based intervention by emergency medical technicians on students and their parents: a community-based prospective study of the Akashi project

Original post: http://bmjopen.bmj.com/cgi/content/short/7/10/e016780?rss=1

Objective

Stroke lessons for youth provided by emergency medical technicians (EMTs) may be an effective strategy to facilitate early intervention for patients with stroke. The aim of this study was to examine how effective EMT-led lessons on stroke awareness for schoolchildren were at disseminating stroke information.

Setting, participants and outcome measures

The study was performed in the city of Akashi, Hyogo, Japan (Akashi project). Children (aged 9–10 years old) at 11 public elementary schools and their parents were enrolled in this study. EMTs from the firefighting headquarters provided lessons on stroke to the children using our educational materials between September 2014 and October 2015. Each child was given our educational materials to take home and discuss stroke with their parents. The children and their parents answered questionnaires on stroke knowledge before, immediately and at 3 months after the lesson.

Results

A total of 763 children and 489 parents were enrolled (ie, 64% of children). The scores of either stroke symptoms or risk factors were significantly higher immediately and at 3 months after the lesson, compared with before the lesso

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Cavity hydration dynamics in cytochrome c oxidase and functional implications [Biophysics and Computational Biology]

Original post: http://www.pnas.org/content/114/42/E8830.short?rss=1

Cytochrome c oxidase (CcO) is a transmembrane protein that uses the free energy of O2 reduction to generate the proton concentration gradient across the membrane. The regulation of competitive proton transfer pathways has been established to be essential to the vectorial transport efficiency of CcO, yet the underlying mechanism at…

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Wind-Up Musical Toys Recalled Over Choking Hazard

Original post: https://www.webmd.com/children/news/20171020/wind-up-musical-toys-recalled-over-choking-hazard?src=RSS_PUBLIC

More than 500,000 of the toys were sold at Carter’s, Target and Walmart.

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Motor origin of temporal predictions in auditory attention [Neuroscience]

Original post: http://www.pnas.org/content/114/42/E8913.short?rss=1

In behavior, action and perception are inherently interdependent. However, the actual mechanistic contributions of the motor system to sensory processing are unknown. We present neurophysiological evidence that the motor system is involved in predictive timing, a brain function that aligns temporal fluctuations of attention with the timing of events in…

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Yoga + Aerobics Doubles Heart Benefits

Original post: https://www.webmd.com/heart/news/20171020/yoga-aerobics-doubles-heart-benefits?src=RSS_PUBLIC

Combined, these exercises are better than either alone, study suggests

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